Perspectives of Peers as a Microsystem for Supporting Deaf Students in Inclusive Elementary Schools


  • Betya Sahara
  • Mumpuniarti Mumpuniarti
  • Suwarjo Suwarjo
  • Muhammad Syamsuri


Peers Inclusion; Inclusive Education; Hearing-Impaired Students; Classroom Microsystem; Thematic Analysis


Peers play a crucial role in facilitating student participation, fostering interaction and unlocking the potential for development, thereby providing an experiential glimpse into living within inclusive or diverse societal settings. This study delves into the perspectives of peers regarding the inclusion of their hearing-impaired counterparts within the classroom microsystem. Focused on the relatively unexplored terrain of typical peers' viewpoints on the presence of hearing-impaired students, this research engages one hundred and twenty-one peers from students with hearing impairments at regular elementary school levels in Banjarbaru City, Indonesia, and their teachers from six classes across different schools. The recruitment process utilized purposive sampling for interviews and a questionnaire, with the gathered data subjected to thematic analysis. Employing the Miles & Huberman model, the data analysis follows a three-fold path encompassing data reduction, presentation, and conclusion/verification. The study underscores the significance of peer management within the microsystem, highlighting its role in aiding the development of proximal zones in the classroom for students with hearing impairments. Drawing from the findings, the study recommends two key interventions. Firstly, teachers are encouraged to foster understanding among peers about hearing-impaired students through targeted learning activities, thereby transforming the microsystem into a supportive environment. Secondly, within the classroom microsystem, both teachers and peers are urged to establish a common language applicable to all elements of the class. This concerted effort aims to enhance communication and interaction, fostering an inclusive and supportive learning environment for all students.


Aguis, J. (2024). Inclusive Education for All: A Qualitative Exploration of Fostering Social Justice and Supporting Students with Special Educational Needs in the Learning Environment. MCAST Journal of Applied Research & Practice, 7(3), 20-39.

Ahmed, T., Chandran, V., Klobas, J. E., Liñán, F., & Kokkalis, P. (2020). Entrepreneurship education programmes: How learning, inspiration and resources affect intentions for new venture creation in a developing economy. The International Journal of Management Education, 18(1), 100327.

Akrami, Z. (2022). The effectiveness of education with the STEM approach in the development of entrepreneurial thinking in chemistry students. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 23(2), 475-485.

Al-Rahmi, W. M., Alzahrani, A. I., Yahaya, N., Alalwan, N., & Kamin, Y. B. (2020). Digital communication: Information and communication technology (ICT) usage for education sustainability. Sustainability, 12(12), 5052.

Alam, A., & Mohanty, A. (2023). Cultural beliefs and equity in educational institutions: exploring the social and philosophical notions of ability groupings in teaching and learning of mathematics. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 28(1), 2270662.

Alamri, Y., Monasterio, E., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2021). Factors Predictive of Medical Student Involvement in Research: Results from a New Zealand Institution. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 12, 183.

Ali, A., Foroudi, P., & Palazzo, M. (2022). Examining the Influence of Corporate Identity on Corporate Reputation and Non-financial Brand Performance in the Context of Higher Education. In The Emerald Handbook of Multi-Stakeholder Communication (pp. 147-189). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Almashhadani, M., & Almashhadani, H. A. (2023). English Translations in Project Management: Enhancing Cross-Cultural Communication and Project Success. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 12(6), 291-297.

Annahar, N., Widianingsih, I., Paskarina, C., & Muhtar, E. A. (2023). A bibliometric review of inclusive governance concept. Cogent Social Sciences, 9(1), 2168839.

Arias-Pérez, J., & Vélez-Jaramillo, J. (2022). Ignoring the three-way interaction of digital orientation, Not-invented-here syndrome and employee's artificial intelligence awareness in digital innovation performance: A recipe for failure. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 174, 121305.

Arifah, R., & Marzuki, I. (2021). Constructivism Theory Of Learning Solutions During The Covid-19 Pandemic In Indonesia. International Journal of Education, Information Technology, and Others, 4(1), 91-96.

Armstrong, A. C., Johansson-Fua, S. u., & Armstrong, D. (2023). Reconceptualising inclusive education in the Pacific. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 27(11), 1177-1190.

Atasoy, B., Türkay, O., & ?engül, S. (2022). Strategic responses of chain hotels to COVID-19 from a situational crisis communication theory perspective. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 5(5), 1118-1136.

Atinaf, M., Anteneh, S., & Kifle, M. (2023). A holistic understanding of information and communication technology for development through context, resilience, and sustainability: Evidence from a local agriculture extension information service in Ethiopia. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, e12260.

Barath, S., Hlongwane, S. N., Madlala, M., Mzanywa, S. L., & Paken, J. (2023). Influence of hearing loss on sibling relationships: Perspectives of the normal hearing sibling. South African Journal of Communication Disorders, 70(1), 939.

Cederbaum, J. A., Molina, A. C. P., Berry-Javier, J. N., Schneiderman, J. U., & Mennen, F. E. (2023). Support in the transition to adulthood for individuals with child-welfare involvement histories. Children and Youth Services Review, 155, 107299.

Chow, W. S. E., de Bruin, K., & Sharma, U. (2023). A scoping review of perceived support needs of teachers for implementing inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-20.

Downes, P. E., Crawford, E. R., Seibert, S. E., Stoverink, A. C., & Campbell, E. M. (2021). Referents or role models? The self-efficacy and job performance effects of perceiving higher performing peers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(3), 422.

Efthymiou, E., & Katsarou, D. V. (2024). Fostering Inclusive Education: Collaborative Strategies, Emerging Technologies, and Parental Engagement for Children With Language Disorders. In D. Katsarou (ed.), Childhood Developmental Language Disorders: Role of Inclusion, Families, and Professionals (pp. 65-84). IGI Global.

Fadda, N., Marinò, L., Pischedda, G., & Ezza, A. (2022). The effect of performance-oriented funding in higher education: Evidence from the staff recruitment budget in Italian higher education. Higher Education, 83(5), 1003-1019.

Fong, T. C., Cheng, Q., Pai, C., Kwan, I., Wong, C., Cheung, S.-H., & Yip, P. S. (2023). Uncovering sample heterogeneity in gaming and social withdrawal behaviors in adolescent and young adult gamers in Hong Kong. Social Science & Medicine, 321, 115774.

Fu, Q., Cherian, J., Ahmad, N., Scholz, M., Samad, S., & Comite, U. (2022). An inclusive leadership framework to foster employee creativity in the healthcare sector: the role of psychological safety and polychronicity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(8), 4519.

Goering, A. E., Resnick, C. E., Bradford, K. D., & Othus?Gault, S. M. (2022). Diversity by design: Broadening participation through inclusive teaching. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2022(199), 77-91.

Grájeda, A., Burgos, J., Córdova, P., & Sanjinés, A. (2024). Assessing student-perceived impact of using artificial intelligence tools: Construction of a synthetic index of application in higher education. Cogent Education, 11(1), 2287917.

Greenhalgh, K., Mahler, N., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Shanley, D. C. (2023). Childhood hearing loss: An uncertain context for parenting. Deafness & Education International, 25(2), 121-139.

Hajisoteriou, C., & Sorkos, G. (2023). Towards a new paradigm of “Sustainable Intercultural and inclusive education”: A comparative “blended” approach. Education Inquiry, 14(4), 496-512.

Iacono, T., Landry, O., Garcia-Melgar, A., Spong, J., Hyett, N., Bagley, K., & McKinstry, C. (2023). A systematized review of co-teaching efficacy in enhancing inclusive education for students with disability. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 27(13), 1454-1468.

Jun, S. H. (2020). The effects of perceived risk, brand credibility and past experience on purchase intention in the Airbnb context. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12.

Jungjohann, J., & Gebhardt, M. (2023). Dimensions of Classroom-Based Assessments in Inclusive Education: A Teachers’ Questionnaire for Instructional Decision-Making, Educational Assessments, Identification of Special Educational Needs, and Progress Monitoring. International Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 131-144.

Junod Perron, N., Nendaz, M., Louis-Simonet, M., Sommer, J., Gut, A., Baroffio, A., Dolmans, D., & van der Vleuten, C. (2013). Effectiveness of a training program in supervisors’ ability to provide feedback on residents’ communication skills. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18, 901-915.

Kamran, M., & Bano, N. (2023). A systematic review of literature on inclusive education with special emphasis on children with disability in Pakistan. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-19.

Khasawneh, N. A. S., Khasawneh, A., Khasawneh, M. A. S., & Jadallah abed Khasawneh, Y. (2024). Improving Arabic Content Delivery on Cloud Computing Platforms for Jordanian E-learning Environments. Migration Letters, 21(S1), 575-585.

Kilag, O. K., Catacutan, A., Abella, J., Arcillo, M., Figer-Canes, R. M., & Zamora, R. M. (2023). Transformative Education: A Study of Teaching Values Education-Based on Paulo Freire’s Philosophy of Education. Excellencia: International Multi-disciplinary Journal of Education (2994-9521), 1(1), 56-64.

Kim, H., So, K. K. F., & Wirtz, J. (2022). Service robots: Applying social exchange theory to better understand human–robot interactions. Tourism Management, 92, 104537.

Leung, E., Adams-Whittaker, J., Sha, K., & Flanagan, T. (2024). Evaluating Canadian pre-service educator programs in response to changing diversity and inclusion needs. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 6, 100326.

Liang, T., Velasco, M. M., & Gavaldà, J. M. S. (2023). Art and Heritage Culture: A High-Quality Inclusive Educational Experience in One Public School in Barcelona. European Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 4(6), 121-127.

Maguvhe, M. O., & Mutambo, A. (2023). A study of inclusive education provision in Zambia: Curriculum reform. African Journal of Disability, 12, 1067.

Masi, G., Berloffa, S., Milone, A., & Brovedani, P. (2023). Social withdrawal and gender differences: Clinical phenotypes and biological bases. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 101(5), 751-763.

Mustapa, M. C., Subhi, N., Ibrahim, F., & Saleem, M. (2020). Religious Knowledge Mediates between the Knowledge about Reproductive Health and Self-Esteem of Malaysian Adolescents. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 10(2).

Navarro, J. L., & Tudge, J. R. (2023). Technologizing Bronfenbrenner: neo-ecological theory. Current Psychology, 42(22), 19338-19354.

Nelis, P., Pedaste, M., & Šuman, C. (2023). Applicability of the model of inclusive education in early childhood education: a case study. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1120735.

Nguyen, L. T. H., Nguyen, N. P. K., Tran, K. N., Choi, H. J., Moon, I. S., Shin, H.-M., & Yang, I.-J. (2024). Essential oil of Pterocarpus santalinus L. alleviates behavioral impairments in social defeat stress-exposed mice by regulating neurotransmission and neuroinflammation. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 171, 116164.

Nolan, H. A., & Owen, K. (2024). Medical student experiences of equality, diversity, and inclusion: content analysis of student feedback using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. BMC Medical Education, 24(1), 5.

Pratama, G., & Christiani, T. (2023). The Impact of the Jigsaw Type Cooperative Learning Model on Independent Learning and Social Studies Achievement. Journal Basic Science and Technology, 12(2), 58-65.

Quirke, M., & McGuckin, C. (2024). The sound of silence: deconstructing notions of inclusion in career guidance on exploring the experience of deaf people. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 1-20.

Rasheed, H. M. W., He, Y., Khizar, H. M. U., & Abbas, H. S. M. (2023). Exploring Consumer-Robot interaction in the hospitality sector: Unpacking the reasons for adoption (or resistance) to artificial intelligence. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 192, 122555.

Rocha, D. F., Bittencourt, I. I., de Amorim Silva, R., & Ospina, P. L. (2023). An assistive technology based on Peirce’s semiotics for the inclusive education of deaf and hearing children. Universal Access in the Information Society, 22(4), 1097-1116.

Rrofiah, K., Ngenge, R. T., Sujarwanto, S., & Ainin, I. K. (2023). Inclusive education at Universitas Negeri Surabaya: Perceptions and realities of students with disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 38(2), 14-25.

Setiawan, W. L., Hidayatullah, K., Azizah, N., & Prayusinar, F. (2023). “Indigenous” Cooperatives Supporting SDGs Development in Indigenous Communities: a study of social and communication (Case: The Consumer Cooperative of Warga Sauyunan, Kampung Naga, Regency of Tasikmalaya, West Java, Indonesia). International Journal of Ethno-Sciences and Education Research, 3(2), 70-76.

Sirem, Ö., & Çatal, T. (2023). An analysis of classroom teachers’ awareness of inclusive education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 38(2), 203-217.

Snoddon, K., & Murray, J. J. (2023). Supporting deaf learners in Nepal via Sustainable Development Goal 4: Inclusive and equitable quality education in sign languages. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 25(1), 92-95.

Sunandar, D. (2023). Enhancing Mathematics Education Through Collaborative Learning: A Study of Two Stay Two Stray (Ts-Ts) and Think-Pair-Share (TPS) Models within Realistic Mathematics Education. International Journal of Enterprise Modelling, 17(3), 130-138.

Veiga, G. R. S., da Silva, G. A. P., Padilha, B. M., & de Carvalho Lima, M. (2023). Determining factors of child linear growth from the viewpoint of Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory. Jornal de Pediatria, 99(3), 205-218.

Wasserman, M., Dodge, J., Barrera, W., Aralis, H., Woodward, K., & Lester, P. (2023). The Impact of Changes in Family Communication on Sustained Mental Health Symptom Improvement in Parents/Caregivers following a Military Family Intervention. Military Behavioral Health, 11(3), 1-13.

White, J., McGarry, S., Falkmer, M., Scott, M., Williams, P. J., & Black, M. H. (2023). Creating Inclusive Schools for Autistic Students: A Scoping Review on Elements Contributing to Strengths-Based Approaches. Education Sciences, 13(7), 709.