Investigating the Role of Digital Learning in Enhancing Educational Values: Online Socialization and Its Effect on Peer Learning, Collaborative Skills and Knowledge Construction


  • Rohaila Yusof
  • Khoo Yin Yin
  • Norlia Mat Norwani
  • Noor Lela Ahmad
  • Zuriadah Ismail


digital learning; collaborative learning; peer learning; online socialization; knowledge construction


This study aimed to examine the advantages of online socializing and digital learning for the growth of interpersonal, peer learning and collaborative skills. The impact of these three skills on knowledge construction was evaluated. The Salmon five step e-moderation model has been used to explore the many phases of learning in a digital environment. This study examined the first stage of the e-moderation model, which is the respondents' internet accessibility, and the stage of knowledge construction in digital learning. The respondents of this study were 402 undergraduate students from four universities who have completed four semesters of online study. A stratified cluster sampling technique was employed in choosing the samples for this study. The instrument for data collection from the respondents was a 40-item questionnaire. Google Forms was utilized as the medium for data gathering. The main findings show that online learning involves a lot of interpersonal, peer learning, and collaborative activities, which are correlated to knowledge construction. The three abilities of peer learning, collaborative skills, and knowledge construction, as indicators of educational values, are positively correlated. The results suggest that a carefully designed online learning session that promotes group activities can deliver beneficial educational values. The common online socializing and information-sharing activities seen on social network sites (SNS), such as Facebook, Telegram, Twitter, etc., have strong educational components that should be included in digital learning, which is the future of education.


Abdullah, N. A., & Amran, M. S. (2021). Perspektif Guru Terhadap Penglibatan Murid Dalam Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Secara Atas Talian Semasa Pandemik Covid-19 Di Malaysia [Teacher Perspective of Student Involvement in Online Teaching and Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Malaysia]. International Journal of Advanced Research in Islamic Studies and Education, 1(4), 32-39.

Ab Jalil, H. & Noordin, N. (2010). Researching Online Learning Activities: What counts? Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.

Ab Jalil, H. (2011). Taking Assistance in Online Learning Activities Seriously–What Counts?. ASEAN Journal of Open Distance Learning, 3(1).,No.1,2011/AJODL_Article_05_Vol3.pdf

Afrizal, S., Kuntari, S., Setiawan, R., & Legiani, W. H. (2020, November). Perubahan Sosial pada Budaya Digital dalam Pendidikan Karakter Anak. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan FKIP, 3(1), 429–436.

Aladsani, H. K. (2021). University Students’ Use and Perceptions of Telegram to Promote Effective Educational Interactions: A Qualitative Study. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 16(9), 23–35.

Almaleki, D. A., Alhajaji, R. A., & Alharbi, M. A. (2021). Measuring Students' Interaction in Distance Learning Through the Electronic Platform and its Impact on their Motivation to Learn During Covid-19 Crisis. International Journal of Computer Science & Network Security, 21(5), 98–112.

Al-Rahmi, W. M., Alias, N., Othman, M. S., Alzahrani, A. I., Alfarraj, O., Saged, A. A., & Rahman, N. S. A. (2018). Use of e-learning by university students in Malaysian higher educational institutions: A case in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Ieee Access, 6, 14268–14276.

Al-Rahmi, W., & Othman, M. (2013). The impact of social media use on academic performance among university students: A pilot study. Journal of information systems research and innovation, 4(12), 1–10.

Alt?nay, F. (2017). Examining the role of social interaction in online learning process. Ensayos: Revista de la Facultad de Educación de Albacete, 32(2), 97–106.

Amadin, F. I., Obienu, A. C., & Osaseri, R. O. (2018). Main barriers and possible enablers of Google apps for education adoption among university staff members. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), 37(2), 432–439.

Asio, J. M. R., Gadia, E., Abarintos, E., Paguio, D., & Balce, M. (2021). Internet connection and learning device availability of college students: Basis for institutionalizing flexible learning in the new normal. Studies in Humanities and Education, 2(1), 56–69.

Aslan, A. (2021). The Evaluation of Collaborative Synchronous Learning Environment within the Framework of Interaction and Community of Inquiry: An Experimental Study. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 5(2), 72–87.

Bahrom, Z. (2020). Pedagogi norma baharu: Cabaran dan hikmah. Jurnal Refleksi Kepemimpinan, (JILID III).

Blayone, T. J. (2017). Readiness for digital learning: Examining self-reported and observed mobile competencies as steps toward more effective learner readiness assessment [Doctoral dissertation, University of Ontario Institute of Technology].

Bozanta, A., & Mardikyan, S. (2017). The effects of social media use on collaborative learning: A case of Turkey. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 96-110.

Crook, C. (2012). The ‘digital native’ in context: Tensions associated with importing Web 2.0 practices into the school setting. Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), 63-80.

Dafoulas, G., & Shokri, A. (2016). Investigating the Educational Value of Social Learning Networks: A Quantitative Analysis. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 13(4), 305-322.

Darius, P. S. H., Gundabattini, E., & Solomon, D. G. (2021). A survey on the effectiveness of online teaching–learning methods for university and college students. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series B, 102(6), 1325-1334. Dokumen Standard Kurikulum Dan Pentaksiran (DSKP).

Davidovitch, N., & Belichenko, M. (2018). Facebook Tools and Digital Learning Achievements in Higher Education. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 5(1), 8-14.

Greenhill, V. (2010). 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation. Partnership for 21st century skills.

Hamdani, A. D. (2021). Pendidikan di Era Digital Yang Mereduksi Nilai Budaya. Jurnal Penelitian, 5(1), 62-68.

Hayes, J. (2013). Interpersonal Skills: Goal directed behaviour at work. Routledge.

Heggart, K., & Yoo, J. (2018). Getting the most from Google Classroom: A pedagogical framework for tertiary educators. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 43(3), 140-153.

Hiew, Y., & Hoon, T. B. (2014). Factors affecting knowledge sharing among ESL undergraduates in completing collaborative writing tasks using Wiki and Skype. The English Teacher, 43(2), 46.

Ishak, M. K. A., & Mohammad, W. M. R. W. (2021). Penerapan nilai-nilai murni dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran simpulan bahasa melayu tahap 1 sekolah rendah: analisis pragmatik. Asian People Journal (APJ), 4(1), 148-168.

Ismail, M. N. (2020). Cabaran kepimpinan dalam pengurusan pembelajaran digital. Jurnal Refleksi Kepemimpinan, 3(1),31-42.

Kerssens, N., & Dijck, J. V. (2021). The platformization of primary education in the Netherlands. Learning, Media and Technology, 46(3), 250-263.

Knezek, G., Mills, L. A., & Wakefield, J. S. (2012). Measuring student attitudes toward learning with social media: Validation of the social media learning scale. Proceedings of the annual convention of the Association of Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 127-134).

Kümmel, E., Moskaliuk, J., Cress, U., & Kimmerle, J. (2020). Digital learning environments in higher education: A literature review of the role of individual vs. social settings for measuring learning outcomes. Education Sciences, 10(3), 78-83.

Law, Q. P., So, H. C., & Chung, J. W. (2017). Effect of collaborative learning on enhancement of students’ self-efficacy, social skills and knowledge towards mobile apps development. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 25-29.

Lindsey, N. S., & Rice, M. L. (2015). Interpersonal Skills and Education in the Traditional and Online Classroom Environments. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(3), 38-45.

Marimuthu, R., Chone, L. S., Heng, L. T., & Terng, H. F. (2017). Fostering better student performance through online collaborative learning via Edmodo. International Academic Research Journal of Social Science, 3(1), 2017.

Manea, A. D. (2019). Educational values within the scope of the technological revolution. Astra Salvensis-revista de istorie si cultura, 7(14), 31-37.

Mohammed, I., Hassan, N. C., & Ab Jalil, H. (2015). Influential predictors of students’ academic achievement in online peer learning among undergraduate students. New Media and Mass Communication, 39(1), 107-118.

Murugaiah, P., & Thang, S. M. (2010). Development of Interactive and Reflective Learning among Malaysian Online Distant Learners: An ESL Instructor's Experience. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 11(3), 21-41.

Mufidah, N., & Tahir, S. Z. B. (2018). Empowering E-Learning as An Interactive Teaching for Arabic Learners. Lisanudhad, 5(2), 57-72.

Ndraha, N. A., & Tangkin, W. P. (2021). Guru sebagai inovator dalam penanaman nilai moral siswa berdasarkan pandangan kristiani di era digital. Excelsis Deo: Jurnal Teologi, Misiologi, dan Pendidikan, 5(1), 71-86.

Ng, F., & Harrison, J. (2021). Preserving transferable skills in the accounting curriculum during the COVID-19 pandemic. Accounting Research Journal, 34(3), 290–303.

Rudenko, E., Sagajdachnaya, E., & Shamraeva, K. (2021). Motivational component of educational activity in the context of a new educational network paradigm. In E3S Web of Conferences, 273, 12063. EDP Sciences.

Ruzmetova, M. (2018). Applying Gilly Salmon’s Five Stage Model for Designing Blended Courses. Dil ve Edebiyat Ara?t?rmalar?, 17(17), 271-290.

Salam, M., & Farooq, M. S. (2020). Does sociability quality of web-based collaborative learning information system influence students’ satisfaction and system usage? International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(1), 1-39.

Salmon, G. (2003). E-moderating: The key to teaching and learning online (2nd ed.). London: Psychology Press.

Salmon, G. (2013). E-tivities: The key to active online learning. Routledge.

Sarwar, B., Zulfiqar, S., Aziz, S., & Ejaz Chandia, K. (2019). Usage of social media tools for collaborative learning: The effect on learning success with the moderating role of cyberbullying. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(1), 246-279.

So, H. J., & Brush, T. A. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors. Computers & education, 51(1), 318-336.

Syafril, E. P. E. (2019). ‘Ruangguru’, Digitalisasi Pendidikan Antara Capaian Nilai Dan Pengembangan Karakter Melalui Interaksi Sosial. Icadecs. Um. Ac. Id, 2019, 94-99.

Wahid, R. (2020). Access to Digital Learning Resources: Constraints and Opportunities. Sustaining Global Strategic Partnership in the Age of Uncertainties, 5(6), 250.

Western Sydney University. (2020). e-Moderating.

Wheeler, S. (2012). e-Learning and digital learning. In Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1109-1111). Springer.

Yakovleva, O. (2022). Digital Learning Environment Values of Pre-Service Teachers as a Basis for Successful Professional Self-Realisation: A Case Study. Education Sciences, 12(2), 120.

Yu, J., Huang, C., Han, Z., He, T., & Li, M. (2020). Investigating the influence of interaction on learning persistence in online settings: Moderation or mediation of academic emotions? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2320.

Zher, N. H., Hussein, R. M. R., & Saat, R. M. (2016). Enhancing Feedback via Peer Learning in Large Classrooms. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(1), 1-16.