Adoption of Learning Management Systems in Face-to-Face Learning: A Systematic Literature Review of Variables, Relationships, and Models


  • Delio Luis Salgado-Chamorro
  • Víctor Mario Noble-Ramos
  • Sebastián Gómez-Jaramillo


face-to-face learning; learning management systems; literature review; teaching process


The use of learning management systems (LMSs) is an outstanding research topic in technology and education. LMSs are used for fully virtual, blended, and face-to-face learning processes. There are reviews in the field on variables and models that explain LMS adoption. However, no literature reviews have been found that analyze LMSs for face-to-face educational processes. As such, the aim of this paper was to conduct a literature review that identifies the variables involved in LMS adoption and their relationships, especially in those studies where the LMS was used to support face-to-face teaching?learning processes. Another aim was to identify the models used in the literature to understand the phenomenon under study. We analyzed 50 research studies and identified approximately 295 variables and their relationships, as well as 11 models attempting to explain the phenomenon. The variables we found include user perception, quality, user skills, social influence, behavior, access, cost, attitude towards use, and intention to use. Very little research has explored the use of LMSs to support face-to-face teaching and learning processes. We therefore see an opportunity for future research in this area.


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