Instrument Measuring the Adaptability of University Students to Online Learning (SOLE) and Its Predicting Factors


  • Ateerah Abdul Razak
  • Azahah Abu Hassan Shaari
  • Lukman Zawawi Mohamad
  • Amanina Abdul Razak Mohamed
  • Asma Lailee Mohd Noor


instrument; measurement; new norm; online learning; students’ adaptability


Online learning has become a practical method in the teaching and learning process, especially during the unprecedented Covid-19 pandemic. Additionally, this situation has forced students to adapt to the new norms of the virtual learning environment. This study intends to validate the instrument used to measure the students’ adaptability to online learning (SOLE). A total of 316 students were selected using purposive sampling from several universities in Malaysia. The validity and reliability of SOLE were both evaluated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. As a result of the findings, the instruments remained at 35 items across four constructs, namely physical, spiritual, and emotional as well as the students’ values. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the scales is above 0.85. The results reveal that overall student adaptability is at a high level across all constructs. It was also observed that there is a significant relation between emotional constructs and SOLE (t=4.726, p<0.000), physical constructs and SOLE (t=6.899, p<0.000), as well as between spiritual constructs and SOLE (t=9.461, p<0.000). Based on this finding, the SOLE instrument has proven to be a suitable instrument measurement to assist students in the context of adjusting to an online learning condition, even though further research is necessary to be carried out on a more diverse population.


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