Challenges in Islamic Education Curriculum Development: A Comparative Study of Indonesia, Pakistan, and India


  • Abdul Rohman
  • Gowhar Meraj
  • Alizar Isna
  • Mulyani Mudis Taruna
  • Arnis Rachmadhani
  • Nugroho Eko Atmanto
  • Nasikhin Nasikhin


international students; curriculum; Islamic education; Indonesia; Pakistan; India


This study identified the challenges in Islamic education curriculum development in Indonesia, Pakistan, and India. By using a paradigmatic interpretive approach, data were obtained from interviews with 15 international students enrolled for the Islamic studies doctoral program in Malaysia; these students were from Indonesia, Pakistan, and India. These students each have more than five years of experience teaching Islamic education subjects in their respective countries. The study found that, in Indonesia, the main challenges in Islamic education curriculum development are integrating the national curriculum with local and global diversity and increasing the accessibility of education for people at all levels of society. The gap between Islamic education patterns in madrasas and public schools should also be addressed. In Pakistan, the main challenge was the accessibility of education, especially in rural areas, and overcoming limited infrastructure and facilities that are the result of the government’s low education budget. Complex challenges, such as gender inequality, ethnic discrimination, and political conflict also hamper curriculum development efforts. In India, challenges center on the conflict between Islam and Hinduism; furthermore, disputes over history and religious identity complicate the integration of Islamic values into the broad curriculum. Another significant barrier is shortcomings in the technological expertise of teachers. While the challenges in the different countries differ, they share similarities in terms of the complexity of crafting a curriculum that is relevant to technological developments, and the needs of a dynamic job market. This study can contribute to policy-making, so that these three countries can work together to improve and enhance the quality of Islamic education.


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