Inquiry-Creative Learning Integrated with Ethnoscience: Efforts to Encourage Prospective Science Teachers’ Critical Thinking in Indonesia


  • Ni Nyoman Sri Putu Verawati
  • Ahmad Harjono
  • Wahyudi Wahyudi
  • Syifa’ul Gummah


critical thinking skills; ethnoscience; inquiry-creative learning; prospective science teachers; traditional teaching


Cultural entities and local or national wisdom can serve to provide scientific knowledge to students, and the in-depth knowledge in the fields of science must be underpinned by critical thinking (CT). In a developing perspective, inquiry is the best way to train CT skills, and creativity becomes one of the supporting aspects. This study aimed to implement inquiry-creative learning integrated with ethnoscience to develop the CT skills of prospective science teachers (PSTs). The study applied the randomized pretest-posttest control design, involving two intervention groups, one with inquiry-creative learning integrated with ethnoscience (n = 29) and the other with traditional teaching (n = 26). The participants were PSTs at two universities in Indonesia. Each group was observed for their CT skills in line with CT indicators (CTi) and individual performance (CTs) using the pretest-posttest method and compared, and a valid essay test was applied to collect data. The CT skills data analysis was descriptive based on the average pretest-posttest and n-gain parameters. The effects of the two interventions on CT skills were analyzed using the t test (p < .05). After descriptive and statistical tests were carried out, the assessment of CT performance on participants in the two intervention groups showed different results. For the CTi and CTs, inquiry-creative learning integrated with ethnoscience had a better impact on training participants’ CT skills when compared to traditional instruction. The statistical analysis results showed a significant difference in the performance of CT skills in participants between the two groups being compared. The findings of this study emphasize that in relation to improving CT performance, teaching practice with inquiry-creative learning integrated with ethnoscience is most effective in improving the CT skills of PSTs. The advantages of the learning intervention are discussed and may contribute to the literature of future studies.


Aditomo, A., & Klieme, E. (2020). Forms of inquiry-based science instruction and their relations with learning outcomes: Evidence from high and low-performing education systems. International Journal of Science Education, 42(4), 504–525.

Arends, R. (2012). Learning to teach (9th ed). McGraw-Hill.

Arfianawati, S., Sudarmin, S., & Sumarni, W. (2016). Model pembelajaran kimia berbasis etnosains untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa [Ethnoscience-based chemistry learning model to improve students’ critical thinking ability]. Jurnal Pengajaran MIPA, 21(1), 46–51.

Atran, S. (1991). L’ethnoscience aujourd’hui [Ethnoscience today]. Social Science Information, 30(4), 595–662.

Bensley, D. A., & Murtagh, M. P. (2012). Guidelines for a scientific approach to critical thinking assessment. Teaching of Psychology, 39(1), 5–16.

Bilad, M. R., Anwar, K., & Hayati, S. (2022). Nurturing prospective STEM teachers’ critical thinking skill through virtual simulation-assisted remote inquiry in Fourier transform courses. International Journal of Essential Competencies in Education, 1(1), 1–10.

Birgili, B. (2015). Creative and critical thinking skills in problem-based learning environments. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 2(2), 71–80.

Bloom, B. H. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook 1: Cognitive domain. David Mackay.

Chen, K., & Chen, C. (2021). Effects of STEM inquiry method on learning attitude and creativity. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 17(11), Article em2031.

Cheung, D. H.-C., Ng, A. K.-L., Kiang, K.-M., & Chan, H. H.-Y. (2020). Creating a community of inquiry in the science classroom: An effective pedagogy for teaching diverse students? Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(1), 1–13.

Darling-Hammond, L., Flook, L., Cook-Harvey, C., Barron, B., & Osher, D. (2020). Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development. Applied Developmental Science, 24(2), 97–140.

de Oliveira Biazus, M., & Mahtari, S. (2022). The impact of project-based learning (PjBL) model on secondary students’ creative thinking skills. International Journal of Essential Competencies in Education, 1(1), 38–48.

Dewi, I. N., Ibrahim, M., Poedjiastoeti, S., Prahani, B. K., Setiawan, D., & Sumarjan, S. (2019). Effectiveness of local wisdom integrated (LWI) learning model to improve scientific communication skills of junior high school students in science learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157, 022014.

Doss, K. K. (2018). Providing opportunities for “flow” experiences and creative problem-solving through inquiry-based instruction. Global Education Review, 5(1), 108–122.

Ennis, R. (2018). Critical thinking across the curriculum: A vision. Topoi, 37(1), 165–184.

Ennis, R. H., & Weir, E. (1985). The Ennis-Weir critical thinking essay test. Midwest Publication.

Ernita, N., Muin, A., Verawati, N. N. S. P., & Prayogi, S. (2021). The effect of inquiry learning model based on laboratory and achievement motivation toward students’ physics learning outcomes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1816(1), 012090.

Evendi, E., Kusaeri, A. K. A., Pardi, M. H. H., Sucipto, L., Bayani, F., & Prayogi, S. (2022). Assessing students’ critical thinking skills viewed from cognitive style: Study on implementation of problem-based e-learning model in mathematics courses. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 18(7), Article em2129.

Fitriani, H., Asy’ari, M., Zubaidah, S., & Mahanal, S. (2019). Exploring the prospective teachers’ critical thinking and critical analysis skills. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(3), 379–390.

Fitriani, H., Samsuri, T., Rachmadiarti, F., Raharjo, R., & Mantlana, C. D. (2022). Development of evaluative-process learning tools integrated with conceptual-problem-based learning models: Study of its validity and effectiveness to train critical thinking. International Journal of Essential Competencies in Education, 1(1), 27?37.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research (8th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Furtak, E. M., Seidel, T., Iverson, H., & Briggs, D. C. (2012). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of inquiry-based science teaching: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 82(3), 300–329.

Garcia, A. A., Semken, S., & Brandt, E. (2020). The construction of cultural consensus models to characterize ethnogeological knowledge. Geoheritage, 12(3), 59.

Gunawan, Y. Y., Sarwanto, & Nurosyid, F. (2019). The analysis of students’ critical thinking skill through ethnoscience instruction integrated on the topic of magnetic field. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2194, 020033.

Hake, R. R. (1999). Analyzing change/gain scores. Indiana University.

Haryani, E., Coben, W. W., Pleasants, B. a.-S., & Fetters, M. K. (2021). Analysis of teachers’ resources for integrating the skills of creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, collaboration, and communication in science classrooms. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(1), 92–102.

Hsu, Y.-C. (2021). An action research in critical thinking concept designed curriculum based on collaborative learning for engineering ethics course. Sustainability, 13(5), 2621.

Iskandar, Sastradika, D., Jumadi, Pujianto, & Defrianti, D. (2020). Development of creative thinking skills through STEM-based instruction in senior high school student. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1567(4), 042043.

Jang, H. (2016). Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 25(2), 284–301.

Jia, X., Hu, W., Cai, F., Wang, H., Li, J., Runco, M. A., & Chen, Y. (2017). The influence of teaching methods on creative problem finding. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 24, 86–94.

Karantzas, G. C., Avery, M. R., Macfarlane, S., Mussap, A., Tooley, G., Hazelwood, Z., & Fitness, J. (2013). Enhancing critical analysis and problem?solving skills in undergraduate psychology: An evaluation of a collaborative learning and problem?based learning approach. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65(1), 38–45.

Kock, Z.-J., Taconis, R., Bolhuis, S., & Gravemeijer, K. (2013). Some key issues in creating inquiry-based instructional practices that aim at the understanding of simple electric circuits. Research in Science Education, 43(2), 579–597.

Kock, Z.-J., Taconis, R., Bolhuis, S., & Gravemeijer, K. (2015). Creating a culture of inquiry in the classroom while fostering an understanding of theoretical concepts in direct current electric circuits: A balanced approach. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(1), 45–69.

Lestari, N., & Fitriani, F. (2016). Physics education based ethnoscience: Literature review. Proceeding of ICMSE, 3(1), 31–34.

Ma, L., & Luo, H. (2021). Chinese pre-service teachers’ cognitions about cultivating critical thinking in teaching English as a foreign language. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 41(3), 543–557.

Moore, T. (2013). Critical thinking: Seven definitions in search of a concept. Studies in Higher Education, 38(4), 506–522.

Mutmainah, Taruh, E., Nurhayati Abbas, & Masri Kudrat Umar. (2019). The influence of blended learning-based guided inquiry learning model and self efficacy on students’ scientific literacy. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(6).

Pahrudin, A., Misbah, Alisia, G., Saregar, A., Asyhari, A., Anugrah, A., & Susilowati, N. E. (2021). The effectiveness of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-inquiry learning for 15–16 years old students based on K-13 Indonesian curriculum: The impact on the critical thinking skills. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(2), 681–692.

Parmin, P., & Fibriana, F. (2019). Prospective teachers’ scientific literacy through ethnoscience learning integrated with the indigenous knowledge of people in the frontier, outermost, and least developed regions. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pembelajaran IPA, 5(2), 142.

Phillips, C., Green, S., & Philosophy Documentation Center. (2011). Faculty as critical thinkers: Challenging assumptions. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 26(2), 44–50.

Prahani, B. K., Suprapto, N., Rachmadiarti, F., Sholahuddin, A., Mahtari, S., Suyidno, & Siswanto, J. (2021). Online scientific creativity learning (OSCL) in science education to improve students’ scientific creativity in Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 18.

Prayogi, S., Yuanita, L., & Wasis. (2018). Critical inquiry based learning: A model of learning to promote critical thinking among prospective teachers of physic. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 15(1), 43–56.

Rahmawan, S., Rahayu, D. S., Siahaan, P., Hendayana, S., & Sendi, S. (2020). The quality of level of inquiry-based lesson design through lesson study [Conference proceedings]. 4th Asian Education Symposium (AES 2019), Manado, Indonesia.

Ramdani, A., Jufri, A. W., Gunawan, G., Fahrurrozi, M., & Yustiqvar, M. (2021). Analysis of students’ critical thinking skills in terms of gender using science teaching materials based on the 5E learning cycle integrated with local wisdom. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(2), 187–199.

Risdianto, E., Dinissjah, M. J., Nirwana, & Kristiawan, M. (2020). The effect of ethno science-based direct instruction learning model in physics learning on students’ critical thinking skill. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 611–615.

Seraphin, K. D. (2014). Where are you from? Writing toward science literacy by connecting culture, person, and place. Journal of Geoscience Education, 62(1), 11–18.

Sturtevant, W. C. (1964). Studies in ethnoscience. American Anthropologist, 66(3), 99–131.

Sudarmin, S., Zahro, L., Pujiastuti, S. E., Asyhar, R., Zaenuri, Z., & Rosita, A. (2019). The development of PBL-based worksheets integrated with green chemistry and ethnoscience to improve students’ thinking skills. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(4), 492–499.

Suhirman, S., Yusuf, Y., Muliadi, A., & Prayogi, S. (2020). The effect of problem-based learning with character emphasis toward students’ higher-order thinking skills and characters. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(06), 183.

Suprapto, N., Prahani, B. K., & Cheng, T. H. (2021). Indonesian curriculum reform in policy and local wisdom: Perspectives from science education. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(1), 69–80.

Suweta, I. M. (2020). Model pembelajaran ekspository sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar kepariwisataan [The expository learning model as an attempt to improve tourism learning performance]. Journal of Education Action Research, 4(4), 467–472.

Suyidno, M., Dewantara, D., Nur, M., & Yuanita, L. (2017). Maximizing students’ scientific process skill within creative product design: Creative responsibility based learning [Conference proceedings]. 5th SEA-DR (South East Asia Development Research) International Conference 2017 (SEADRIC 2017), Lambung, Indonesia.

Suyidno, S., Susilowati, E., Arifuddin, M., Misbah, M., Sunarti, T., & Dwikoranto, D. (2019). Increasing students’ responsibility and scientific creativity through creative responsibility based learning. Jurnal Penelitian Fisika Dan Aplikasinya (JPFA), 9(2), 178.

Tiruneh, D. T., de Cock, M., Weldeslassie, A. G., Elen, J., & Janssen, R. (2017). Measuring critical thinking in physics: Development and validation of a critical thinking test in electricity and magnetism. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(4), 663–682.

van der Graaf, J., van de Sande, E., Gijsel, M., & Segers, E. (2019). A combined approach to strengthen children’s scientific thinking: Direct instruction on scientific reasoning and training of teacher’s verbal support. International Journal of Science Education, 41(9), 1119–1138.

van Peppen, L. M., van Gog, T., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., & Alexander, P. A. (2021). Identifying obstacles to transfer of critical thinking skills. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 34(2), 261–288.

Verawati, N. N. S. P., Handriani, L. S., & Prahani, B. K. (2022). The experimental experience of motion kinematics in biology class using PhET virtual simulation and its impact on learning outcomes. International Journal of Essential Competencies in Education, 1(1), 11–17.

Verawati, N. N. S. P., Hikmawati, H., Prayogi, S., & Bilad, M. R. (2021). Reflective practices in inquiry learning: Its effectiveness in training pre-service teachers’ critical thinking viewed from cognitive styles. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(4), 505?514.

Verawati, N. N. S. P., Prayogi, S., Gummah, S., Muliadi, A., & Yusup, M. Y. (2019). The effect of conflict-cognitive strategy in inquiry learning towards pre-service teachers’ critical thinking ability. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(4).

Wahyudi, P., Verawati, N. N. S., Ayub, S., & Prayogi, S. (2018). Development of inquiry-creative-process learning model to promote critical thinking ability of physics prospective teachers. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1108, 012005.

Wahyudi, W., Verawati, N. N. S. P., Ayub, S., & Prayogi, S. (2019). The effect of scientific creativity in inquiry learning to promote critical thinking ability of prospective teachers. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 14(14), 122.

Wang, Y.-H. (2013). The multicultural science literacy of science teachers in Taiwan. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(9), 2052–2059.

Zainuddin, Z., Suyidno, S., Dewantara, D., Mahtari, S., Nur, M., Yuanita, L., & Sunarti, T. (2020). The correlation of scientific knowledge-science process skills and scientific creativity in creative responsibility based learning. International Journal of Instruction, 13(3), 307–316.

Zoller, U., & Nahum, T. L. (2012). From teaching to KNOW to learning to THINK in science education. In B. J. Fraser, K. Tobin, & C. J. McRobbie (Eds.), Second international handbook of science education (pp. 209–229). Springer Netherlands.