The Role of Mother’s Education and Early Skills in Language and Literacy Learning Opportunities


  • Dyah Lyesmaya
  • Bachrudin Musthafa
  • Dadang Sunendar


early skills; literacy and language learning; socioeconomic status; mother’s education


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between language and literacy learning opportunities, early skills, socioeconomic status, and mother’s education in children’s early education. In addition, we attempted to determine the language domains needed for training as well as the ideal duration for language and literacy learning for children. We used a mixed methods design to assess early childhood language and literacy skills. The study involved 2550 early childhood learners, 235 teachers, and parents of learner participants from 112 kindergartens. The standard measure of language proficiency was used to measure the learners’ early language and literacy skills. Mother’s education and learners’ early abilities were positively correlated with learners’ language and literacy learning opportunities. Learners who have mothers with a high level of education receive significant opportunities to learn language and literacy compared to those with mothers with a low level of education. Therefore, their language skills are superior. There are 12 language domains needed for training in early childhood and the ideal duration of language learning for children is 26 minutes per day or 182 minutes a week. The language domains are determining factors for obtaining reading skills in the future. Mother’s education and child’s early skills really help children in language and literacy learning. The implication of this research is that literacy programs are needed for early childhood learners who have low initial abilities and children with mothers with a low level of education.


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