The Development of e-Reading to Improve English Reading Ability and Energise Thai Learners’ Self-Directed Learning Strategies


  • Pongpatchara Kawinkoonlasate


e-Reading programme; English reading ability; Self-directed Learning; Thai EFL Learners; Motivation


Technological education has changed lifestyles, and educational institutions need to prepare their learners with the necessary tools to be successful in real life. The objectives of the study are: 1) to explore learner’s achievements in reading comprehension with the use of e-Reading and traditional teaching methods, 2) to analyse the satisfaction of learners using e-reading and traditional teaching methods, and 3) to observe the effects of the learner’s reading comprehension while using e-reading methods versus traditional teaching methods based on a standard 80/80 criterion. The participants were sophomore learners enrolled in English courses. Thirty learners were selected by nonprobability sampling and divided into two groups, the experimental and control. The experimental group received lessons using an e-Reading programme, the control group was taught using a traditional teaching method. The research tools were pre- and post-tests, lesson plans, learners’ perception questionnaires, and interviews. Data collected through quantitative means were analysed using a t-test standard and average deviation programme. The interview data were analysed using a content analysis method. Data from the pre- and post-tests show that reading comprehension improved in the experimental group, who used the e-Reading programme. They also showed a “positive” attitude regarding their learning satisfaction and self-directed learning.  The learners’ satisfaction and self-directed learning were higher in the e-Reading programme. Standard 80/80 criteria were met with an efficiency of 81.6/82.3 in the e-Reading programme. This research could be used as reference for further study and application of the e-Reading programme.


Almekhlafi, A. G. (2020). The effect of E-books on Preservice learner teachers’ achievement and perceptions in the United Arab Emirates. Education and Information Technologies, 26(1), 1001–1021.

Anderson, T. L. (2012). Examining elementary learners' use of electronic readers for independent reading (Doctoral dissertation). University of Tennessee.

Auer, N. (2016). Scaffolding foreign language learners’ reading strategies using tablet computers at two secondary schools in Denmark [PhD Thesis, University of Leicester].

Biancarosa, G., & Griffiths, G.G. (2012). Technology tools to support reading in the digital age. The Future of Children / Center For the Future of Children, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. 22: 139–60.

Ciampa, K. (2012). Reading in the digital age: Using electronic books as a teaching tool for beginning readers. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 38(2).

Chen, C. N., Chen, S. C., Chen, S- H. E., & Wey, S. C. (2013). The effects of extensive reading via e-books on tertiary level EFL learners' reading attitude, reading comprehension and vocabulary. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(2). 303–312.

Chen, R. (2010). Investigating models for preservice teachers’ use of technology to support learner-centred learning. Computers & Education, 55(1), 32–42.

Crum, C. E. (2017). Influence of technology on English language learners’ vocabulary, reading, and comprehension [PhD Thesis, General Education].

Eicker-Nel S., & Matthee M. (2014). The adoption of tablet-based e-textbooks in a South African private school. In Proceedings of the e-skills for knowledge South African Journal of Education, 35(4),1–14.

Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring language through second language acquisition research. London: Routledge.

Ertem, I. (2010). The effect of electronic storybooks on struggling fourth-graders’ reading comprehension. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 9(4), 140–155.

Fox, L. C.C., (2014). Effects of Technology on Literacy Skills and Motivation to Read and Write. Education and Human Development. [Master's Thesis].

Garrison, J. (1997). Self-directed learning toward a comprehensive model. Science & Education, 6(6), 543–554.

Gregersen, T., & Horwitz, E.K. (2002). Language learning and perfectionism: Anxious and non-anxious language learners' reactions to their oral performance. Modern Language Journal, 86, 562–570.

Huang, H. C. (2013). Online reading strategies at work: What teachers think and what learners do. ReCALL, 25(3), 340–358.

Holec, H. (1996). Self-directed learning: an alternative form of training. Language Teaching, 29, 89–93.

Ingram, N. B. (2020). The use of E-books, computers, and tablets to enhance reading skills [PhD Thesis].

Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G., & Agamba, J. (2014). Promoting effective e-learning practices through the constructivist pedagogy. Education and Information Technologies, 19(4), 887–898.

Khodabandehlou, M., Jahandar, S., Seyedi, G., Mousavi, D. A. R. (2012). The impact of self-directed learning strategies on reading comprehension. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 3(7), 1–9.

Klauda, S., & Guthrie, J. (2015). Comparing relations of motivation, engagement, and achievement among struggling and advanced adolescent readers. Read Write, 28, 239–269. 10.1007/s11145-014-9523-2

Khruawan, P. & K. Dennis, N. (2017). A study of English reading comprehension using content-based instruction approach. International Journal of Research - Granthaalayah, 5(1), 368–375.

Kongvimon, W. (2016). The development of electronic books (E-Book) on Photoshop programme for instructional media production for primary level teachers [Master’s Thesis, Burapha University].

Korat, O. (2010). Reading Electronic Books as a Support for Vocabulary, Story Comprehension, and Word Reading in Kindergarten and First Grade. Computers and Education 55(1), 24–31.

Kottong, K. (2014). The development of English reading exercises based on Asian folktales through the storyline method for prathomsuksa six learners of Banpao (Samranchaiwittaya) school. [Master’s Thesis, Silpakorn University].

Larson, L. (2010). Electronic reading workshop: Beyond books with new literacies and instructional technologies. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 52, 121–131.

Linik, J. R. (2012). Literacy 2.0: Teaching learners the skills needed to succeed in our information economy. Education Digest, 78(3), 25–29.

Mangen, A., Bente, R., & Bronnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 61–68.

Mckeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. (2009). Rethinking reading comprehension instruction: A comparison of instruction for strategies and content approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(3), 218–253.

Mcnamara, D. S. (2004). SERT: Self-explanation reading training. Discourse Processes, 38(1), 1–30.

Mcnamara, D. S. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, Interventions and Technologies. New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Nagi, K. (2012). Learning English language in Thailand: Hype or Necessity? The Nation.

Oakley, G. (2011). The assessment of reading comprehension cognitive strategies: Practices and perceptions of Western Australian teachers. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, 34, 279–293.

Osanai, D. (2000). Differences in language learning strategies between male and female, and also between Asian and Latino ESL learners [Doctoral dissertation. University of Texas, Austin].

Park, H., & Kim, D. (2011). Reading-strategy use by English as a second language learners in online reading tasks. Computers & Education, 57(3), 2156–2166.

Pastore, M. (2008). 30 benefits of e-books. Epublishers Weekly, January 28, 2008.

a. html

Reid, C. (2016). eBooks and Print Books Can Have Different Effects on Literacy Comprehension. Reid/2e98a77a9438d086a05d1ce1c7ef837c2376b443

Sackstein, S. Spark, L., & Jenkins, A. (2015). Are e-Books effective tools for learning? Reading speed and comprehension: ipad vs. paper. South African Journal of Education, 35(4), 1–14.

Shang, H-F. (2015). An investigation of scaffolded reading on EFL hypertext comprehension. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(3), 293–312.

Shakeri, H. (2012). The relationship among EFL learners’ autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, reading strategies, and reading comprehension [Master’s Thesis, Islamic Azad University].

Short, L. A. (2010). Using electronic books to increase elementary learners’ motivation to read [Doctoral dissertation, Dominican University of California, San Rafael].

Singha-o-pas, S., Nuchmee, K. C., & InThanin, W. T. (2016). Development of an electronic book on information technology for education for undergraduate learners at Thaksin University. Valaya Alongkorn Review (Humanities and Social Science), 6(2), 79–91.

Szabo, S., & Long, D. (2016). E-readers and the effects on learners’ reading motivation, attitude, and comprehension during guided reading. Cogent Education, 3.

Teerapaksiri, K., Watanabut, L., & Sopa, N. (2017). Development of English communication skills for the ASEAN Community by using electronic books for mattayom suksa 4. The 3rd National Conference on Technology and Innovation Management, 3,1-7.

Tracey, D. H., & Morrow, L. M. (2012). Lenses on reading: an introduction to theories and models (2nd ed). New York: The Guilford Press.

Uamduang U. (2012). The development of English for career reading exercises for first-year electrical engineering technology learners [University of Technology, Rattanakosin].

Vaish, V. (2016). Learner Engagement in Reading. Education Innovation Series, 135–151.

Zhang, L. J. (2008). Constructivist pedagogy in strategic reading instruction: Exploring pathways to learner development in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 36, 89–116.